Plant anatomy can be defined as a branch of botany, which is concerned with the study of internal structure of plants. It is also called as Phytotomy. Plant anatomy is a Greek word, which means dissection. It completely deals with the structural organization of plants.
Plant morphology is a branch of botany that describes the physical form and external structures of a plant. It can also be defined as a study of tissue organization. Plant morphology is concerned with the study of entire structures, such as histology and cytology of a plant. It is also called as phytomorphology.
Plant morphology is also involved in identifying the hereditary, environmental determinants and their relationships by the method of controlled-environment and grafting experiments on embryos.
Plant anatomy and morphology are both inter related with the study of structural and functional of plants in kingdom Plantae.
The four basic parts of plants
ïƒ˜ Roots: Root plays a vital role in absorbing water and minerals. They are also involved in the storage of food, anchor the plant and also propagate some plants.
ïƒ˜ Stem: Stem plays a vital role in transportation of materials, which includes- Water and minerals from roots to leaves and manufactured food from leaves to roots. They are also involved in the storage of food and support leaves and reproductive structures.
ïƒ˜ Leaves: Leaves plays a vital role in photosynthesis. They are also involved in food storage and helps in plants respiration. They are also called as site of gas exchange.
ïƒ˜ Flowers: Flowers plays a vital role in producing fruits and in attracting insects for pollination. They contain the sexual organs for the plant.
Plants roots are multicellular organs, which are present below the ground. A radical gives rise to a primary root, which grows and develop inside the soil and later it gives rise to several lateral roots, which are referred as a secondary, territory roots, etc.
There are two types of roots.
ïƒ˜ They are the one main root, with the absence of nodes.
ïƒ˜ They are the continuation of the primary root.
ïƒ˜ They are involved in the storage of food and anchoring the plant.
ïƒ˜ Their penetration is greater for water.
ïƒ˜ A taproot contains one main vertical root, which give rise to lateral roots or branch roots.
Tap root - e.g.: beetroot, carrot, radish, turnip,etc.
They are finely branched secondary roots.
They cover a large area and cannot go as deep as taproots.
More efficient absorption of water and minerals.
They prevent soil erosion by holding the roots.
They are the network of fine roots with no central dominant root.
Fibrous root - e.g.: Coconut, palm, marigold, etc.
Plants leaves are the food making factories of green plants. Leaves come in many different shapes and sizes. Leaves can be simple and are made of a single leaf blade connected by a petiole to the stem. A compound leaf is a leaf made up of separate leaflets attached by a petiole to the stem like an ash or a locust.
Leaf anatomy is correlated to photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide + Water â†’ sugars + oxygen
External part of leaves
The external part of leaves includes:
ïƒ˜ Petiole: They are the stalk or the part, which helps in connecting leaf to its stem.
ïƒ˜ Blade: They are the large, broad, flat surface part of the leaf. It plays a vital role in collecting sunlight. It is also referred as leaf blade.
ïƒ˜ Midrib: It is the large, center, main vein running down the center of the leaf. It helps to hold the leaf, facing the sun.
Types of leaves
There are two types of leaves.
ïƒ˜ Simple leaf : The leaf, which has only one leaf connected to the petiole.
Compound leaf: The leaf, which has multiple blades connected to the petiole.There are two types of vein Patterns
ïƒ˜ Parallel veins: They are the veins, which never cross. These types of leaves are found in monocots.
ïƒ˜ Netted veins: They are the veins, which forms a network. These types of leaves are found in Dicots.
There are six types of Leaf layers.
ïƒ˜ Cuticle: They are the top waxy, non-cellular part of the leaf, which play a vital role in preventing water escaping from the leaf.
ïƒ˜ Epidermis: They are the skin like layer of cells, which are found both on the top and on the bottom of the leaf. It plays a vital role in protecting the leaf.
ïƒ˜ Palisade mesophyll: They are the layers of cells, which are present below the upper epidermis. It plays a vital photosynthesis.
ïƒ˜ Spongy mesophyll: They are the layers of cells, which are loosely packed and are located just beneath the palisade mesophyll. It plays a vital role in holding the products of photosynthesis.
ïƒ˜ Stomata: They are the holes, which are present in the lower epidermis and are responsible for gas exchange.
ïƒ˜ Guard Cells: They are the layers, which surround the stomata and are responsible for opening and closing of the stomata.
A flower plays a vital role in producing fruits and in attracting insects for pollination. They contain the sexual organs for the plant.
Parts of flower
The parts of flower include:
ïƒ˜ Sepals: They are the outer covering of the flower bud, which protects the stamens and pistils during the bpd stage. They are collectively known as the calyx.
ïƒ˜ Petals: They are bright in colour, which helps in protecting stamen and pistils and are mainly responsible for attracting insects for pollination. They are collectively known as the corolla.
ïƒ˜ Male reproductive part of the flower: Anther and filament are collectively called as male reproductive part of the flower. Anther helps in produces pollen and the filament helps in supporting the anther.
ïƒ˜ Female reproductive part of the flower: Ovary and stigma are collectively called as female reproductive part of the flower. Ovary is the enlarged portion at base of pistil, which produces ovules and develops into seeds. Stigma helps in holding the pollen grains.
ïƒ˜ Style: They are connected to the stigma with the ovary and it plays a vital role in supporting the stigma so that it can be pollinated.
Types of flowers
There are two types of flowers.
Perfect flowers: In perfect flowers, it contains both male and female reproductive structures.
Perfect flowers - e.g.: lily,rose,etc.
ïƒ˜ Imperfect flowers: In imperfect flowers, a male flower has sepals, petals, and stamen, but no pistils and a female flower has sepals, petals, and pistils, but no stamen.
Imperfect flowers -Maize,silk,squash,begonia,etc.