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Plant Anatomy

Plants are the living, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms, which belongs to the kingdom Plantae. There are more than 3000,000species of plants. Plants play a key role in the history of life on planet earth. Plants are the main responsible for the addition of oxygen gas to the atmosphere. They are the only source of food for both animals and humans. They are the primary habitat for millions of other organisms. A plant is living which produce their food by photosynthesis. Plants provide shelter, safety, place, food for animals. 


Plants

 

Definition of Plant Anatomy 

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Plant anatomy can be defined as a branch of botany, which is concerned with the study of internal structure of plants. It is also called as Phytotomy. Plant anatomy is a Greek word, which means dissection. It completely deals with the structural organization of plants.

Plant Anatomy and Morphology

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Plant morphology is a branch of botany that describes the physical form and external structures of a plant. It can also be defined as a study of tissue organization. Plant morphology is concerned with the study of entire structures, such as histology and cytology of a plant. It is also called as phytomorphology.
Plant morphology is also involved in identifying the hereditary, environmental determinants and their relationships by the method of  controlled-environment and grafting experiments on embryos.
Plant anatomy and morphology are both inter related with the study of structural and functional of plants in kingdom Plantae.

Plant Anatomy

The four basic parts of plants
 Roots: Root plays a vital role in absorbing water and minerals. They are also involved in the storage of food, anchor the plant and also propagate some plants.

 Stem: Stem plays a vital role in transportation of materials, which includes- Water and minerals from roots to leaves and manufactured food from leaves to roots. They are also involved in the storage of food and support leaves and reproductive structures.

 Leaves: Leaves plays a vital role in photosynthesis. They are also involved in food storage and helps in plants respiration. They are also called as site of gas exchange.

 Flowers: Flowers plays a vital role in producing fruits and in attracting insects for pollination. They contain the sexual organs for the plant.


Plant Root Anatomy

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Plants roots are multicellular organs, which are present below the ground. A radical gives rise to a primary root, which grows and develop inside the soil and later it gives rise to several lateral roots, which are referred as a secondary, territory roots, etc.
There are two types of roots.

Tap Root
 They are the one main root, with the absence of nodes.
 They are the continuation of the primary root.
 They are involved in the storage of food and anchoring the plant.
 Their penetration is greater for water.
 A taproot contains one main vertical root, which give rise to lateral roots or branch roots.
Tap root - e.g.:    beetroot, carrot, radish, turnip,etc.

Carrot

Carrot
Fibrous Root
  • They are finely branched secondary roots.
  • They cover a large area and cannot go as deep as taproots.
  • More efficient absorption of water and minerals.
  • They prevent soil erosion by holding the roots.
  • They are the network of fine roots with no central dominant root.
         Fibrous root - e.g.: Coconut, palm, marigold, etc.

Palm

Palm


Plant Leaf Anatomy

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Leaf Anatomy



Plants leaves are the food making factories of green plants. Leaves come in many different shapes and sizes. Leaves can be simple and are made of a single leaf blade connected by a petiole to the stem. A compound leaf is a leaf made up of separate leaflets attached by a petiole to the stem like an ash or a locust.
Leaf anatomy is correlated to photosynthesis.
 Carbon dioxide + Water  â†’  sugars + oxygen 
External part of leavesThe external part of leaves includes:

External Part of Leaves

 Petiole:  They are the stalk or the part, which helps in connecting leaf to its stem.

 Blade: They are the large, broad, flat surface part of the leaf. It plays a vital role in collecting sunlight. It is also referred as leaf blade.

 Midrib: It is the large, center, main vein running down the center of the leaf.  It helps to hold the leaf, facing the sun.

Types of leaves
There are two types of leaves.

Types of Leaves



 Simple leaf : The leaf, which has only one leaf connected to the petiole.

 Compound leaf: The leaf, which has multiple blades connected to the petiole.

There are two types of vein Patterns
 Parallel veins:  They are the veins, which never cross. These types of leaves are found in monocots.

 Netted veins:  They are the veins, which forms a network.  These types of leaves are found in Dicots.

There are six types of Leaf layers.
 Cuticle:  They are the top waxy, non-cellular part of the leaf, which play a vital role in preventing water escaping from the leaf.

 Epidermis:  They are the skin like layer of cells, which are found both on the top and on the bottom of the leaf.  It plays a vital role in protecting the leaf.

 Palisade mesophyll:  They are the layers of cells, which are present below the upper epidermis. It plays a vital photosynthesis.

 Spongy mesophyll:  They are the layers of cells, which are loosely packed and are located just beneath the palisade mesophyll.  It plays a vital role in holding the products of photosynthesis.

 Stomata:  They are the holes, which are present in the lower epidermis and are responsible for gas exchange.

 Guard Cells: They are the layers, which surround the stomata and are responsible for opening and closing of the stomata.


Flowering Plant Anatomy

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A flower plays a vital role in producing fruits and in attracting insects for pollination. They contain the sexual organs for the plant.

Parts of flower 
The parts of flower include:

 Sepals: They are the outer covering of the flower bud, which protects the stamens and pistils during the bpd stage. They are collectively known as the calyx.

 Petals: They are bright in colour, which helps in protecting stamen and pistils and are mainly responsible for attracting insects for pollination.  They are collectively known as the corolla.

 Male reproductive part of the flower:  Anther and filament are collectively called as male reproductive part of the flower. Anther helps in produces pollen and the filament helps in supporting the anther. 

 Female reproductive part of the flower: Ovary and stigma are collectively called as female reproductive part of the flower. Ovary is the enlarged portion at base of pistil, which produces ovules and develops into seeds. Stigma helps in holding the pollen grains. 

 Style: They are connected to the stigma with the ovary and it plays a vital role in supporting the stigma so that it can be pollinated.

Parts of Flower

Types of flowers
There are two types of flowers.

 Perfect flowers: In perfect flowers, it contains both male and female reproductive structures.
Perfect flowers - e.g.: lily,rose,etc.

Perfect Flowers


 Imperfect flowers: In imperfect flowers, a male flower has sepals, petals, and stamen, but no pistils and a female flower has sepals, petals, and pistils, but no stamen.
Imperfect flowers -Maize,silk,squash,begonia,etc.

Imperfect Flowers

More topics in Plant Anatomy
Plant Tissue
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