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Flowering Plants

A flower is the reproductive organ of all flowering plants. A single flower produces egg and sperm and the entire process of fertilization in plants occurs inside the flower. A single flower gives rise to fruit and seeds. In addition to reproduction flower plays a vital role in pollination by attracting animals, birds and other flies to transfer the pollen grains. According to the history, flowering plants came into existence about 135 million years ago. In fact, the food, which we consume every day comes from the flowering plants itself.

Flowering Plants


Definition of Flowering Plants

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Flowering plants can be defined as those plants, which can produce flowers, fruits and seeds. They are completely different from nonflowering plants. They are also called as angiosperms. Flowering plants are the largest groups within the plant kingdom.There are around 260,000 species of flowering plant and about 90% species are identified. This species also includes aquatic plants, desert plants, land plants, seasonal plants, etc.

Rose - A flowering plant.

Rose a Fowering Plant

Examples of Flowering Plants

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Sunflower, tulips, marigold, lily, jasmine, rose, lotus, hibiscus, Petunia, daisy, water lilies, Orchid, hibiscus,etc.

Lotus - An aquatic flowering plant.

Lotus an Aquatic Flowering Plant

Types of Flowering Plants

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There are two types of flowering plants. These classifications was based on
  • The physical structure of roots, stem and leaves.
  • Types of seeds - Monocot and Dicot.

Types of Flowering Plant
General characteristics of monocots.
  • They are one seeded plant.
  • The leaves of monocotyledons have parallel veins.
  • They are herbaceous plants.
  • The parts of the flowers of monocotyledons are arranged in threes or more. It may contain flowers with three petals, flowers with six petals and the stamens also follow this pattern.
  • Monocotyledons make a seed with a seed coat.
        Monocot e.g. grass, corn, rice, wheat, etc. 



General characteristics of dicot.

  • They are two seeded plant.
  • The leaves of dicotyledons have veins in network.
  • Dicotyledons seeds also contain an embryonic plant.
  • The flowers of dicotyledons have petals and other parts of flower are arranged in four or five or six. It may contain flowers with four petals, flowers with five petals, flowers have six petals and the stamens also follow this pattern.
  • The seed is protected by a seed coat.
          Dicot e.g. trees, sunflower, rose, etc.



Desert Flowering Plants

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Deserts are the home to many living things. Plants that grow in a desert have to be adapted to the dry conditions. They must be able to collect and store water to reduce water loss. Desert plants look quite different to plant that grow in other places. The desert plant includes bushes, cactii, saguaro cactus, which have been adapted to survive in the extremely dry conditions.Desert plants are hard and have a capability to tolerate alkaline soils.
  • The bushes plants have waxy leaves to reduce water loss and their leaves have real aroma to avoid animals from feeding their leaves.
  • Cactii and saguaro cactus have a tiny thorns on the surface of their leaves, which avoid animals from feeding their leaves.
  • The desert plants stem is green, where the process of photosynthesis is carried on.
  • The desert plants roots are long, which helps in absorbing stored underground water.
  • Cactii and saguaro cactus can grow up to 15metres height and can store about 800 litres of water.
         Desert flowering plants e.g. Desert Agave, cactii, saguaro cactus, dragon tree, desert rose, etc.


Hardy Flowering Plants

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Hardy flowering plants can be defined as seasonal plants or a plant, which is adapted to the temperature, climate and to certain area. Hardy flowering plants have an ability to tolerate extreme cold, heat, wind, floods, and other geographic location, etc.
Different types of hardy flowering plants.

Tender: The tender plants are those plants, which cannot survive in extreme cold temperature and finely the plants die. These include plants like: annual herbs, corn, cucumber, eggplant, peanut, pumpkin, sweet potato, tomato, watermelon.



Half-hardy: The term half-hardy plants are used in cultivation,  to describe bedding plants, which are sown in heat in winter or early spring and planted outside after all danger of frost has passed. These plants require green house and warm temperature. They include plants like Busy lizzie, petunias, etc.

Busy lizzie

Busy Lizzie

Hardy: The hardy plants are those plants, which can survive even in extreme cold temperature. Hence they can be sown outside and they do not require green house. These include popular plants such as love in the mist, nasturtiums, etc.


Winter-hardy plants: The winter-hardy plants are those plants, which grow only during winter. These include plants like: cabbage, broccoli, carrot, tulips, freesia, etc.



Hanging Flowering Plants

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The hanging flowering plants can be defined as small evergreen shrubs, which can be grown in baskets or in hanging pots. These types of flowering plants can also be planted on fences and patios. They are traditional plants, which are planted in between the month of April to early June. These plants are habituated to more heat and plenty of water. There are plenty of hanging flowering plants, which includes: moss rose, lantana, fuchsia, verbena, sweet alyssum, etc.

Hanging flowering plants

Hanging Flowering Plants

Characteristics of Flowering Plants

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These plants produce flowers, fruits and seeds.
  • They are characterized by a root system and a shoot system.
  • They are the main producers.
  • Reproduction in flowering plants is by sexually.
  • Flowering plants make up nearly 90 percent of all plant species found in this biosphere.
  • They are present from 130 million years on this biosphere.
  • The three largest families of flowering plants are the sunflower, orchid and pea families.
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