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Biological Classification

There were huge numbers of birds, land animals, aquatic animals, worms, insects, plants, etc. Many scientists contributed their life in classifying different species into their own respective groups, which were based on their habituate, nutrition and etc. But it was not successful as there were lots of species which were left behind.

Biological classification helps in studying, wide variety of organisms and interrelationship among different groups. This biological classification system increase as more species are found and classified.

 

Biological Classification Definition

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Biological classification is the method of grouping organisms into different organs based on their genus and species. The science, which deals with describing, classifying and naming the organism, is known as taxonomy. In the year 1750 a famous botanist Carl Von Linne, developed the method of binomial nomenclature. The term “binomial nomenclature” is derived from the Latin word meaning “scientific name”.

Biological Classification System

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The main reason behind the binomial nomenclature is to group and identify different types of species, which were present on the planet earth. There were around 1 to 2 million types of plants, animals and other 3 to 10 million organisms, which were unidentified, such as bacteria, virus, birds, insects, etc.

Later Linnaeus classified the different organisms based on their structure and discovered the term called Binomial Nomenclature. It is the method of naming the organisms by their genus and followed by their species. Linnaeus classified two kingdoms of classifications:

1. Kingdom Plantae 
2. Kingdom Animalia. 

But this was not successful, as it could not distinguish between – 

  • Eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
  • Unicellular and multicellular.
  • Photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic.

Biological Classification Chart

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Biological classification helps in studying, wide variety of organisms and interrelationship among different groups. This biological classification system increase as more species are found and classified.

In the year 1969 a scientist named   R.H. Whittaker divided organisms into five kingdoms – 

1. Monera.
2. Protista.
3. Fungi.
4. Plantae.
5. Animalia.

The classification of organisms was based on cell structure, organization, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship.

Biological Classification Kingdoms

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Kingdom Monera: 
  • The kingdom consists of very small and one-celled organisms.
  • They are prokaryotes, which includes species such as bacteria, archae bacteria, cyanobacteria and Mycoplasma.
  • They are present almost everywhere around us. 
  • They are unicellular organisms with no specific mode of nutrition. 
  • They are both aerobic and anaerobic. The presence of cell wall, which are composed of peptidoglycan. They have naked DNA with the absence of membrane bound organelles. Reproduction is through by binary fission.
Bacteria

Kingdom monera- e.g.: bacteria.

Kingdom Protista: 
  • They are single-celled, eukaryotes and mainly aquatic.
  • It includes diatoms, golden algae, euglena and protozoans like amoeba, paramecium Plasmodium, etc.
  • In this kingdom, cell walls form two thin overlapping shells.
  • Walls are embedded with silica. Cell walls deposit forms a diatomaceous, which is used for polishing, filtration of oils and syrups.
  • Mostly marine & photosynthetic.
Paramecium

Kingdom Protista- e.g.: paramecium.

Kingdom Fungi: 
  • Bodies consist of long, thread like structures, which are called as hyphae.  Network of this threadlike structures are called as mycelium.
  • Cell walls are made of chitin and polysaccharides.
  • Mode of nutrients: They are saprophytes or parasites and also symbionts.
  • This kingdom of fungi also includes lichens, mycorrhiza, aspergillums, etc.
  • Reproduction is mainly through –sexual, asexual and vegetation.
Mushroom

Kingdom fungi- e.g.: mushroom.

Kingdom Plantae: 
  • They are eukaryotic and chlorophyll containing organisms.
  • Lifecycle has two phases- diploid saprophytic and haploid gametophyte that alternate with each other. 
  • They are multicellular organisms, which produce their food by photosynthesis.
  • Cell walls are made of cellulose.
  • It includes all types of plants – herbs, shrubs, trees, flowering and non flowering plants, etc.
Mango Tree

Kingdom Plantae- e.g.: Mango tree

Kingdom Animalia:
  • They are heterotrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, which lack cell walls.
  • They feed on plants or on animals.
  • It includes all types of animals.
The Tiger

Kingdom Animalia: The tiger
More topics in Biological Classification
Five Kingdom Classification Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia
Two Kingdom Classification Scientific Names of Plants and Animals
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