The main reason for soil contamination is due to the presence of anthropogenic activities. These waste products are made of chemicals that are not originally found in nature and hence lead to soil pollution. Soil pollution is typically caused by industrial activity, chemicals used in agriculture and improper disposal of waste.
Soil contamination leads to health risks due to direct and indirect contact with contaminated soil. Soil pollution causes huge disturbances in the ecological balance and the health of the organisms is under risk.
Some of the serious problems caused by soil pollution are:
- Reduction in soil fertility.
- Loss of the natural nutrients of the soil.
- Imbalance is the flora and fauna of the soil.
- Salinity increases in the soil making it unfit for cultivation.
- Crops grown on polluted soil cause health problems on consumption,.
- Soil pollution creates toxic dust.
- Foul odor due to chemicals and gases can lead to problems like headaches, nausea, etc.
- Pollutants in soil cause alteration in soil structure, causing death of many soil organisms. This can affect the food chain.