Cell division is a process with sequence of steps that enables organisms to grow and reproduce. Genetic material is replicated in parent cells and is distributed equally to the two daughter cells. Cells undergo a period of growth called interpahse before entering mitosis. During the interphase, the genetic material replicates and the organelles prepare for division. In the process of mitosis, the parent's cell genome is transferred into the two daughter cells. The daughter cells are similar to each other and to their parent cell.The cell's genome is composed of chromosomes that are complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain the genetic material which is vital for the proper functioning of the cell.
The process of mitosis begins when the chromosomes condense. In most eukaryotic cells, the nuclear membrane segregates the DNA from the cytoplasm into membrane vesicles. The ribosomes also dissolve, the chromosomes align themselves. Microtubules pull apart the sister chromatids of each chromosome. The daughter chromosomes are pulled towards opposite ends. Nuclear membrane forms around the separate daughter chromosomes. In animal cells, the area of cell membrane pinches inwards, to form the two daughter cells, the imaginary line is called the cleavage furrow which separates the developing nuclei. In plant cells, the new dividing cell wall is constructed in between the daughter cells. The parent cell will thus split in half and give rise to two daughter cells.