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B Cells

B cells are the plasma cell that produces antibodies when a foreign antigen triggers the immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow. They are the main types of lymphocytes. They play a vital role by secreting substances called antibodies into the body fluids. These antibodies engulf foreign antigens circulating in the bloodstream. Immunoglobulin G, or IgG, is a kind of antibody that works efficiently by coating the microbes and increasing their uptake in the immune system. B cells are also called as b-lymphocyte.

B-Cell Structure


Structure of a B Cell
Development of B-cells in bone marrow.

Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to a lymphoid progenitor cell, which is differentiated into B cells. This lymphoid progenitor migrates into the thymus and initiates T cell development or remains in the bone marrow to initiate B cell development. In the bone marrow, the B cell development is subdivided into- pre-B, pro-B, mature B cells and immature B cells. B cells develop in the foetal liver and in adult bone marrow. Stages of B cell differentiation are defined by Ig gene rearrangement. Pre-B cell receptor ligation is essential for B cell development.

Factors dependent B cell development.
  • The cytokine IL-7 is secreted by the bone marrow of stromal cells.
  •  The productive rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes. 
  •  In the common lymphoid progenitor both the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains are in their germ-line configuration and they must be rearranged to generate an in-frame protein for B cell development to progress.

Related Calculators
Y=mx+b Calculator
 

Function of B Cells

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Below you could see the function of B Cells:
  • It regulates construction of an antigen receptor.
  • It ensures the cell specificity.
  • It helps in exporting all required cells in the periphery.
  • It helps in antibody production.
  • It helps rearrangement of their antigen receptors.

B-Cell Lymphoma

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B-cell lymphomas are types of lymphoma affecting B cells. Lymphomas are "blood cancers" in the lymph glands. They develop more frequently in the immune systems of older adults. They are large, transformed B-cells with prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. They have a multiple variants, which appear to have inconsistent clinical significance. B-cell lymphomas are generally expressed as-cell antigens (CD19, CD20, CD22, and CD79a).

Causes of B-cell lymphomas:

Lymphomas can occur at any age, but most commonly seen in adults at the age of 50-70 years. Around 40 children (0-14 years) in Australia are diagnosed with this syndrome every year. Lymphomas are seen more frequently in men than in women. There is no proper reason behind the cause of B-cell lymphomas. As per the records, lymphomas are generally caused by damage to one or more genes, which normally controls the development of blood cells. 

Symptoms of B-cell lymphomas:
  • Fever, weakness and fatigue.
  • Weight loss.
  • Severe night sweats.
  • Anemia.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Itchiness, generally all over.
  • Breathlessness, caused by the swelling in the face or neck.
  • Enlarged lymph nodes.

Diagnosis and treatment for B-cell lymphomas.

Diagnosis should be biopsy-proven before the treatment is initiated.

  • A traditional treatment: This treatment consists of radiation, chemotherapy and splenectomy.
  • Homeopathy treatment. 
  • Naturopathic treatments: This treatment consists of

Nutrition: vitamin-C rich foods, apples, celery, guava, seaweed, mushrooms, figs, beets, papaya, beans, sea cucumbers, carrot, garlic, walnut, mulberries, asparagus, pumpkin, barley, grains, fresh fruit and vegetables.

Hydrotherapy: fever treatment, Epsom salt baths, castor oil packs.

Botanicals: An herbal treatment provided to patients.

Supplements: It includes beta carotene, vitamin-C, vitamin-E and selenium.

Lymphomas are usually treated by chemotherapy, organ transplantation, radiotherapy, etc. The cure generally depends on the type of lymphoma and the progression of the disease.

Large B Cell Lymphoma

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Large B- cell lymphoma is also called as DLBCL - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
DLBCL is a type of cancer in the B-cells, which occurs at any time between adolescence and old age. It is mostly seen at the age of around 60 and is more common in men than in women.

Causes of large B- cell lymphoma.

The causes of DLBCL are not yet known but quite similar to cancers and like a cancer it is noninfectious disease.

Symptoms of large B- cell lymphoma.

  • Painless swelling in few parts of the body, which are caused by the enlargements of lymph nodes. 
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Tiredness.
  • Night sweats.
  • Fever with high temperatures.
  •  Weight loss.

Diagnosis and treatment for large B- cell lymphoma.

Diagnosis for this syndrome is a biopsy and other preliminary test includes – blood test and x-rays.
Large B- cell lymphoma is usually treated by a combination of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, stem cell transplantation, radiotherapy, steroid therapy, etc. The cure rate varies greatly depending on the type of lymphoma and the progression of the disease.

Small B Cell Lymphoma

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Small B- cell lymphoma is also called as SLL – small lymphocytic lymphoma.
SLL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. SLL is a type of cancer in the B-cells, which occurs at any time between adolescence and old age. It is mostly seen in the age of around 50 and is more common in men than in women.

Causes of small B- cell lymphoma.

The causes of SLL are not yet known but quite similar to cancers and like a cancer it is noninfectious disease.

Symptoms of small B- cell lymphoma.
  • Painless swelling in few parts of the body, which are caused by the enlargements of lymph nodes. 
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Tiredness.
  • Night sweats.
  • Fever with high temperatures.
  •  Weight loss.

Diagnosis and treatment for small B- cell lymphoma.

Diagnosis for this syndrome is a biopsy and other preliminary test includes – blood test and x-rays.
Small B- cell lymphoma is usually treated by a combination of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, stem cell transplantation, radiotherapy, steroid therapy, etc. The cure rate varies greatly depending on the type of lymphoma and the progression of the disease.
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