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 Amino  Acids

Amino acids are organic bio molecules or a compound, which combine to form proteins. Both proteins and amino acids are the building blocks of life. They are the biologically important organic compounds, which contain both amino (-NH2) and carboxyl groups (-COOH) .
The human body needs a number of amino acids to perform several biological and chemical functions in a human body. Amino acids should be included in our daily diet as they are plays vital role in functioning of different parts in our body. Foods rich in amino acids includes, vegetables like beans, carrots, cabbage, onions, cucumber, beetroots and green leafy vegetables. Fruits rich in amino acids are melons, oranges pineapple, papaya, grapes and pomegranates.


 

Definition of Amino Acids

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Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. These are necessary ingredients for the growth of human beings. Amino acids contain both basic amino groups and acidic carboxyl groups. The ingredients present in protein are of amino acids. Both peptides and proteins are the long chains of amino acids.

General properties of Amino Acids

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  • Amino acids are soluble in water and insoluble in hydrocarbon solutions.
  • They are crystalline solid substances.
  • They have very high melting point compared to their boiling point.

List of Amino Acids

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There are around twenty amino acids, which are involved in the construction of proteins. The lists of twenty amino acids are:
Alanine, aspartic acid, asparagines, arginine, cytosine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, Proline, phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan and Valine, 

Essential Amino Acids 

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There are few amino acids which are essential for human beings such as: phenylalanine, Valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, lysine, and histidine. They are very much essential, as they cannot be bio synthesized by our body. 

Nonessential Amino Acids 

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 There are few amino acids, which are non essential for human beings as they can be easily bio synthesized by our body. The non essential amino acids are: Alanine, cysteine, cystine, glutamine, glycine, glutamate, arginine, tyrosine, serine, asparagines, aspartic acid, selenocysteine and Proline.

Functions of Amino Acids 

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Functions of Essential Amino Acids:
  • Phenylalanine: Helps in boosting memory power and also helps to maintain a healthy nervous system
  • Valine: Helps in growth of muscles.
  • Threonine: It promotes the functioning of immune system.  
  • Tryptophan: Plays a vital role in maintaining our appetite.
  • Isoleucine: Plays a vital role in synthesis of hemoglobin and it is a major component of RBC (red blood cells)
  • Methionine: Helps in maintaining a good and healthy skin.
  • Leucine: It promotes the synthesis of growth hormones.
  • Lysine: They are involved in the synthesis of enzymes and other hormones.
  • Histidine: Helps in the production and synthesis of both RBC (red blood cells) and WBC (white blood cells)

Functions Non Essential Amino Acids:
  • Alanine: Helps in removal of toxic from our body.
  • Cysteine: It provides resistance to our body and inhibits the growth of hairs, nails and etc.
  • Cystine: It functions as an antioxidant and protects our body against radiation and pollutions.
  • Glutamine: It is necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA.
  • Glycine: It acts as a neurotransmitter and plays a vital role in healing wounds.
  • Glutamate: Helps in removal of toxic from our body.
  • Arginine: It promotes the biosynthesis of proteins.
  • Tyrosine: It plays a vital role in the production of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones.
  • Serine: Helps in growth of muscles.
  • Asparagines: Helps in the formations of purines and pyrimidines for the DNA synthesis.
  • Aspartic acid: It is similar to asparagines amino acids. It promotes the synthesis of other amino acids.
  • Proline: Helps in regeneration of new skin.

Classification of Amino Acids

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Amino acids are placed into seven groups based on their substituent.
  • Aliphatic amino acids: Alanine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, Proline and Valine.
  • Aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine
  • Acidic amino acids: aspartic acid and glutamic acid.
  • Basic amino acids: arginine, histidine and lysine.
  • Hydroxylic amino acids: serine and threonine.
  • Sulphur containing amino acids: cytosine and methionine.
  • Amidic amino acids: asparagines and glutamine.

Examples of Essential Amino Acids

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Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. These are necessary ingredients for the growth of human beings.
An example of essential amino acids includes: Soy protein, eggs, parmesan, sesame, peanuts, tofu, whitefish, pork, mustard seeds, winged beans and chia seeds.

Walnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews and peanuts are all rich sources of the essential amino acid L-arginine, Arginine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. Fish are abundant in isoleucine, lysine and methionine. Soy beans are rich in isoleucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan and Valine. Eggs are good sources of methionine, isoleucine, lysine and Tryptophan.

Amino Acids Structure

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Amino acids have the general form H2NCHRCOOH.
(or)

Amono Acid

List of 20 amino acids with their structure and chemical formula :


S.No  Aminoacid   Chemical formula  Structure of Aminoacid
 1  Isoleucine  C6H13NO2   Isoleucine
 2  Leucine   C6H13NO2  Leucine
 3  Lysine  C6H14N2O2  Lysine
 4  Methionine  C5H11NO2S  Methionine
 5  Phenylalanine  C9H11NO2  Phenylalanine
 6  Threonine  C4H9NO3  Threonine
 7  Tryptophan  C11H12N2O2  Tryptophan
 8  Valine  C5H11NO2  Valine
 9  Arginine  C6H14N4O2  Arginine
 10  Histidine  C6H9N3O2  Histidine
 11  Alanine  C3H7NO2  Alanine
 12  Asparagine   C4H8N2O3   Asparagine
 13  Aspartate  C4H7NO4  Aspartate
 14  Cysteine  C3H7NO2S  Cysteine
 15  Glutamate  C5H9NO4  Glutamate
 16  Glutamine  C5H10N2O3  Glutamine
 17  Glycine  C2H5NO2  Glycine
 18  Proline  C5H9NO2  Proline
 19  Serine  C3H7NO3  Serine
 20  Tyrosine  C9H11NO3  Tyrosine

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