Amino acids are organic bio molecules or a compound, which combine to form proteins. Both proteins and amino acids are the building blocks of life. They are the biologically important organic compounds, which contain both amino (-NH2) and carboxyl groups (-COOH) .
The human body needs a number of amino acids to perform several biological and chemical functions in a human body. Amino acids should be included in our daily diet as they are plays vital role in functioning of different parts in our body. Foods rich in amino acids includes, vegetables like beans, carrots, cabbage, onions, cucumber, beetroots and green leafy vegetables. Fruits rich in amino acids are melons, oranges pineapple, papaya, grapes and pomegranates.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. These are necessary ingredients for the growth of human beings. Amino acids contain both basic amino groups and acidic carboxyl groups. The ingredients present in protein are of amino acids. Both peptides and proteins are the long chains of amino acids.
- Amino acids are soluble in water and insoluble in hydrocarbon solutions.
- They are crystalline solid substances.
- They have very high melting point compared to their boiling point.
There are around twenty amino acids, which are involved in the construction of proteins. The lists of twenty amino acids are:
Alanine, aspartic acid, asparagines, arginine, cytosine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, Proline, phenylalanine, serine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan and Valine,
There are few amino acids which are essential for human beings such as: phenylalanine, Valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, lysine, and histidine. They are very much essential, as they cannot be bio synthesized by our body.
There are few amino acids, which are non essential for human beings as they can be easily bio synthesized by our body. The non essential amino acids are: Alanine, cysteine, cystine, glutamine, glycine, glutamate, arginine, tyrosine, serine, asparagines, aspartic acid, selenocysteine and Proline.
Functions of Essential Amino Acids:
- Phenylalanine: Helps in boosting memory power and also helps to maintain a healthy nervous system
- Valine: Helps in growth of muscles.
- Threonine: It promotes the functioning of immune system.
- Tryptophan: Plays a vital role in maintaining our appetite.
- Isoleucine: Plays a vital role in synthesis of hemoglobin and it is a major component of RBC (red blood cells)
- Methionine: Helps in maintaining a good and healthy skin.
- Leucine: It promotes the synthesis of growth hormones.
- Lysine: They are involved in the synthesis of enzymes and other hormones.
- Histidine: Helps in the production and synthesis of both RBC (red blood cells) and WBC (white blood cells)
Functions Non Essential Amino Acids:
Amino acids are placed into seven groups based on their substituent.
- Alanine: Helps in removal of toxic from our body.
- Cysteine: It provides resistance to our body and inhibits the growth of hairs, nails and etc.
- Cystine: It functions as an antioxidant and protects our body against radiation and pollutions.
- Glutamine: It is necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA.
- Glycine: It acts as a neurotransmitter and plays a vital role in healing wounds.
- Glutamate: Helps in removal of toxic from our body.
- Arginine: It promotes the biosynthesis of proteins.
- Tyrosine: It plays a vital role in the production of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones.
- Serine: Helps in growth of muscles.
- Asparagines: Helps in the formations of purines and pyrimidines for the DNA synthesis.
- Aspartic acid: It is similar to asparagines amino acids. It promotes the synthesis of other amino acids.
- Proline: Helps in regeneration of new skin.
- Aliphatic amino acids: Alanine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, Proline and Valine.
- Aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine
- Acidic amino acids: aspartic acid and glutamic acid.
- Basic amino acids: arginine, histidine and lysine.
- Hydroxylic amino acids: serine and threonine.
- Sulphur containing amino acids: cytosine and methionine.
- Amidic amino acids: asparagines and glutamine.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. These are necessary ingredients for the growth of human beings.
An example of essential amino acids includes: Soy protein, eggs, parmesan, sesame, peanuts, tofu, whitefish, pork, mustard seeds, winged beans and chia seeds.
Walnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews and peanuts are all rich sources of the essential amino acid L-arginine, Arginine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. Fish are abundant in isoleucine, lysine and methionine. Soy beans are rich in isoleucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan and Valine. Eggs are good sources of methionine, isoleucine, lysine and Tryptophan.
Amino acids have the general form H2NCHRCOOH.
(or)List of 20 amino acids with their structure and chemical formula :
|| Chemical formula
|| Structure of Aminoacid